Vol. 13 No. 2 (2020): Spring 2020

Political Reincorporation of Female FARC-EP Ex-Combatants: The Creation of Victims, Heroes, and Threats

The mighty Himalayas are now visible from Pathankot, Punjab. Thanks to super visibility and no pollution.

Published 2020-06-15

How to Cite

Ehasz, A. (2020). Political Reincorporation of Female FARC-EP Ex-Combatants: The Creation of Victims, Heroes, and Threats. Cornell International Affairs Review, 13(2), 39–93. https://doi.org/10.37513/ciar.v13i2.553


No abstract available.


  1. Alonso Gonzalez, Jose M. “How Is FARC’s Political Party Going after Its First Year?” Latin American Post. September 13, 2018. https://latinamericanpost.com/23229-how-is-farcs-political-party-going-after-its-first-year
  2. Annan, Kofi. “Learning the Lessons of Peace-Building.” Lecture given at Magee Campus, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK, October 18, 2004. https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2004-10-18/secretary-general-kofi-annan’s-tip-o’neill-lecture-“learning-lessons
  3. Apuleyo Mendoza, Plinio. “Historia de Lorena Murcia, Presidenta de La Corporación Rosa Blanca.” El Tiempo. May 6, 2019. https://www.eltiempo.com/bogota/historia-de-lorena-murcia-presidenta-de-la-corporacion-rosa-blanca-358020
  4. Avione, Priscyll A., and Rachel Tillman, “Demobilized Women in Colombia: Embodiment, Performativity, and Social Reconciliation.” In Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace: Challenging Gender in Violence and Post-Conflict Reintegration, edited by Seema Shekhawat. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137516565_14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137516565_14
  5. Barth, Elise F. “Peace as Disappointment: The Reintegration of Female Soldiers in Post-Conflict Societies—A Comparative Study from Africa.” Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, PRIO International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway, August 2002. https://www.prio.org/Publications/Publication/?x=7293
  6. Benavides Correa, Hernando A. “Gustavo Petro, el ‘progresista.’” Semana. September 29, 2011. https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/gustavo-petro-progresista/247166-3
  7. Bouvier, Virginia M. “Gender and the Role of Women in Colombia’s Peace Process.” Report for the United Nations Global Study on 15 Years of Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), UN Women, New York, March 4, 2016. https://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/Women-Colombia-Peace-Process-EN.pdf
  8. Brittain, James J. Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia: The Origin and Direction of the FARC-EP. New York: Pluto Press, 2010.
  9. “Can Colombia’s President Iván Duque Find His Feet?” Economist. June 20, 2019. https://www.economist.com/the-americas/2019/06/20/can-colombias-president-ivan-duque-find-his-feet
  10. Casey, Nicholas, and Federico Rios Escobar. “Colombia Struck a Peace Deal With Guerrillas, but Many Return to Arms.” New York Times. September 18, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/18/world/americas/colombia-farc-peace.html
  11. Castrillon, Gloria. “‘Sandra Ramírez,’ la viuda del fundador de las Farc.” El Espectador. July 20, 2018. https://www.elespectador.com/colombia2020/politica/sandra-ramirez-la-viuda-del-fundador-de-las-farc-articulo-856920
  12. Ceballos, Juanita. “Colombia: Talking Peace with a FARC Commander.” Al Jazeera. 2016. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/08/colombia-talking-peace-farc-commander-160809063317756.html
  13. “Colombia Election: Farc Fails to Win Support in First National Vote.” BBC News. March 12, 2018. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-43367222
  14. “Colombia’s New President Iván Duque: Puppet or Rock Star?” BBC News. June 18, 2018. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-44488011
  15. Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812675
  16. Daniels, Joe P. “Colombians Hear Grim Echo of Decades-Long War in Mayoral Contender’s Murder.” Guardian. October 25, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/25/colombia-peace-deal-war-farc-karina-garcia
  17. “Democratic Center.” Colombia Reports. December 8, 2018. https://colombiareports.com/democratic-center-colombia/
  18. Desai, Anita. “Women’s Role in Maintaining and/or Resisting Patriarchy.” In Feminism and Contemporary Indian Women’s Writing, edited by Elizabeth Jackson. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  19. Dietrich Ortega, Luisa M. “Untapped Resources for Peace: A Comparative Study of Women’s Organizations of Guerrilla Ex-Combatants in Colombia and El Salvador.” In Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace: Challenging Gender in Violence and Post-Conflict Reintegration, edited by Seema Shekhawat. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137516565_15 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137516565_15
  20. Doce, Nacho, and Daniel Flynn. “In Colombia, Victims of Sexual Abuse Speak out after Peace Deal.” Reuters. September 20, 2018. https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-colombia-conflict-abuse/in-colombia-victims-of-sexual-abuse-speak-out-after-peace-deal-idUKKCN1M01OQ
  21. “FARC Members Take Seats in Colombian Congress.” Justice for Colombia. July 23, 2018. https://justiceforcolombia.org/news/farc-members-take-seats-in-colombian-congress/
  22. “FARC, The Sequel - Will Colombia Return to War?” Economist. September 5, 2019. https://www.economist.com/the-americas/2019/09/05/will-colombia-return-to-war
  23. Farianas, Mujeres. “Woman Fariana.” Partido Político FARC. 2019. https://www.partidofarc.com.co/en/woman-fariana
  24. Felter, Claire, and Danielle Renwick. “Colombia’s Civil Conflict.” Council on Foreign Relations. January 1, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/colombias-civil-conflict
  25. Final Agreement for Ending the Conflict and Building a Stable and Lasting Peace, Colom.-FARC-EP. November 24, 2016. U.N. Doc. S/2017/272.
  26. Flisi, Isabella. “The Reintegration of Former Combatants in Colombia: Addressing Violent Masculinities in a Fragile Context.” Gender and Development 24.3 (2016): 391-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2016.1233667 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2016.1233667
  27. Giraldo, Saidalia. “Demobilized Women Combatants: Lessons from Colombia.” Paper presented at the Thinking Gender Conference, 22 Annual Graduate Student Research Conference, UCLA Center for the Study of Women, Los Angeles, CA, February 3, 2012. https://escholarship.org/content/qt08z6h9qk/qt08z6h9qk.pdf?t=m2oizq&nosplash=5ebcb889b4fcdd804010b58b0a68f17f
  28. Giustozzi, Antonio. Introduction to Post-Conflict Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration: Bringing State-Building Back In, ed. Antonio Giustozzi. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012.
  29. Gottipati, Sruthi. “Colombia’s Female FARC Fighters Wage a New War, for Gender Parity.” New Humanitarian. September 7, 2017. http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/feature/2017/09/07/colombia-s-female-farc-fighters-wage-new-war-gender-parity
  30. Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco, and Andrew Gonzalez Pena, “Colombia’s Paramilitary DDR and Its Limits,” in Post-Conflict Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: Bringing State-Building Back In, edited by Antonio Giustozzi, 113-132. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012.
  31. ———, and Francy Carranza Franco. “Organizing Women for Combat: The Experience of the FARC in the Colombian War.” Journal of Agrarian Change 17.4 (2017): 770-778. https://doi.org/10.1111/joac.12238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joac.12238
  32. Hanson, Stephanie. “Colombia’s Right-Wing Paramilitaries and Splinter Groups.” Council on Foreign Relations. January 10, 2008. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/colombias-right-wing-paramilitaries-and-splinter-groups
  33. Harper, Brian, and Holly K. Sonneland. “Explainer: Colombia’s Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP).” Americas Society/Council of the Americas. August 3, 2018. https://www.as-coa.org/articles/explainer-colombias-special-jurisdiction-peace-jep
  34. Hauge, Wenche. “Group Identity—a Neglected and Political Participation in Guatemala.” Conflict, Security and Development 8.3 (2008): 295-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/14678800802323316 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14678800802323316
  35. Howard, Michael. Studies in War and Peace. New York: Viking Press, 1971.
  36. “Inter-American Court to Review Genocide of Patriotic Union Political Party.” Justice for Colombia. 2018. https://justiceforcolombia.org/news/inter-american-court-to-review-genocide-of-patriotic-union-political-party/
  37. Isacson, Adam. “To Save Colombia’s Peace Process, Prove the Extremists Wrong.” New York Times. September 3, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/03/opinion/international-world/colombia-farc-peace.html
  38. “JEP Insists A Group Of Women Raped In The FARC Submit Reports.” El Tiempo. April 2, 2019. https://www.eltiempo.com/justicia/jep-colombia/jep-insiste-a-corporacion-rosa-blanca-grupo-de-mujeres-violadas-en-las-farc-a-presentar-informes-344938
  39. “Juan Manuel Santos.” Colombia Reports. March 9, 2019. https://colombiareports.com/juan-manuel-santos/
  40. Kesby, Mike. “Arenas for Control, Terrains of Gender Contestation: Guerrilla Struggle and Counter-Insurgency Warfare in Zimbabwe 1972-1980.” Journal of Southern African Studies 22.4 (1996): 561-584. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079608708512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079608708512
  41. Kincaid, Jake. “Colombia’s Opponents of War Crimes Tribunal Clash with International Community.” Colombia Reports. February 19, 2019. https://colombiareports.com/colombias-hard-right-and-international-community-clash-over-war-crimes-tribunal/
  42. “La JEP negó salida del país a la senadora de las Farc, Victoria Sandino.” Semana. October 11, 2019. https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/por-que-la-jep-le-nego-salida-del-pais-a-senadora-de-las-farc-victoria-sandino/639760
  43. “La Polémica Valla Del Uribismo Contra La JEP.” El Espectador. March 24, 2019. https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/politica/la-polemica-valla-del-uribismo-contra-la-jep-articulo-846721
  44. “Las FARC y la lucha de niñas y niños víctimas de sus delitos sexuales.” Testigo Directo. August 29, 2019. Video, 10:03. https://youtu.be/YINaDuz9w98
  45. MacKenzie, Megan. “Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” Security Studies 18.2 (2009): 241-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/09636410902900061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09636410902900061
  46. Marulanda Veléz, Manuel. “The Origins of the FARC-EP: The Birth of the Armed Resistance.” In War in Colombia: Made in the U.S.A., ed. Rebecca Toledo, Teresa Gutierrez, Sara Flounders, and Andy McInerney, 115-122. New York: International Action Centre, 2003.
  47. Metsola, Lalli. “‘Reintegration’ of Ex-Combatants and Former Fighters: A Lens into State Formation and Citizenship in Namibia.” Third World Quarterly 27.6 (2006): 1119-1135. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590600842407 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590600842407
  48. Muddell, Kelli, and Sibley Hawkins. “Module 2: Truth Seeking.” Training document, Gender and Transitional Justice: A Training Module Series, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York, October 2018. https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/2_Gender%20%26%20TJ%20-%20Truth%20Seeking%20-%20Speaker%20Notes.pdf
  49. Munive, Jairo, and Finn Stepputat. “Rethinking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs.” Stability 4.1 (2015): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.5334/sta.go DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/sta.go
  50. Murer, Jeffrey S. “Political Violence.” In The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security, ed. Derek S. Reveron, Nikolas K. Gvosdev, and John A. Cloud. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190680015.013.28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190680015.013.28
  51. Murphy, Helen, and Carlos Vargas. “Colombian Duque’s Bid to Change Peace Deal Rattles Sabres, but War Unlikely.” Reuters. March 17, 2019. https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-colombia-peace-analysis/colombian-duques-bid-to-change-peace-deal-rattles-sabres-but-war-unlikely-idUKKCN1QY0MS
  52. O’Neill, Jaqueline. “Are Women the Key to Peace in Colombia?” Foreign Policy. April 20, 2015. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/04/20/are-women-the-key-to-peace-in-colombia-farc-talks/
  53. Otis, John. “After Peace Agreement, A Baby Boom Among Colombia’s FARC Guerrillas.” NPR. May 3, 2017. https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/05/03/526690242/after-peace-agreement-a-baby-boom-among-colombias-farc-guerrillas?t=1574091333524
  54. Paarlberg-Kvam, Kate. “What’s to Come Is More Complicated: Feminist Visions of Peace in Colombia.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 21.2 (2018): 194-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2018.1487266 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2018.1487266
  55. Ramirez, Sandra (@SandraFARC), Twitter profile, https://twitter.com/sandrafarc
  56. Rathbone, John P., and Gideon Long. “Polarised Colombia Prepares for Polls amid Lukewarm Links with US.” Irish Times. May 25, 2018. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/polarised-colombia-prepares-for-polls-amid-lukewarm-links-with-us-1.3508
  57. Rettberg, Angelika. “Peace-Making Amidst an Unfinished Social Contract: The Case of Colombia.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 14.1 (2019): 84-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2019.1619655 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2019.1619655
  58. Richani, Nazih. Systems of Violence: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Colombia. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2013.
  59. Rinaldi, Mark R. “A Peace Monument in Colombia Is Caught in a New Crossfire.” New York Times. October 23, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/23/arts/design/colombia-farc-peace-monument.html
  60. Ruiz-Navarro, Catalina. “A Feminist Peace in Colombia?” Heinrich Boll Stiftung. February 14, 2019. https://www.boell.de/en/2019/02/14/feminist-peace
  61. Sandino, Victoria (@SandinoVictoria), Twitter profile, https://twitter.com/SandinoVictoria
  62. Shayne, Julie. The Revolution Question: Feminisms in El Salvador, Chile, and Cuba. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
  63. Silva, Maria A. “Alvaro Uribe: The Most Dangerous Man in Colombian Politics.” Council on Hemispheric Affairs. October 20, 2017. http://www.coha.org/alvaro-uribe-the-most-dangerous-man-in-colombian-politics/
  64. “Simon Bolivar - Accomplishments, Revolution & Death.” Biography. July 23, 2019. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/simon-bolivar.
  65. Snyder, Jack, and Leslie Vinjamuri. “Trials and Errors.” International Security 28.3 (2004): 5-44. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228803773100066 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/016228803773100066
  66. Söderström, Johanna. “The Resilient, the Remobilized and the Removed: Party Mobilization among Former M19 Combatants.” Civil Wars 18.2 (2016): 214-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698249.2016.1205565 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13698249.2016.1205565
  67. Söderström, Johanna. Peacebuilding and Ex-Combatants: Political Reintegration in Liberia. New York: Routledge, 2015. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315762807 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315762807
  68. Solimano, Andres, ed. Colombia: Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000.
  69. Sørensen, Birgitte. “Women and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Issues and Sources.” Working paper, WSP Occasional Paper no. 3, Program for Strategic and International Security Studies, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, Switzerland, June 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/148841
  70. “South America, Colombia.” CIA World Factbook. April 1, 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html
  71. Special Report on the Monitoring of the Gender Perspective in the Implementation of the Colombian Final Peace Accord. Report, Kroc Institute and the International Accompaniment Component, UN Women, Women’s International Democratic Federation, and Sweden, Bogotá, Colombia, 2018. https://kroc.nd.edu/assets/297624/181113_gender_report_final.pdf
  72. Stallone, Kiran, and Julia Zulver. “The Feminists of Farc: ‘We Are Not Demobilising, We Are Mobilising Politically.’” Guardian. March 27, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/mar/27/feminists-farc-colombia-female-inequality
  73. Talcott, Molly. “‘Together We Have Power’: Personal Traumas and Political Responses among Activist Oaxaqueñas.” Latin American Perspectives 41.1 (2014): 82-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X13492142 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X13492142
  74. Tarnaala, Elisa. “Legacies of Violence and the Unfinished Past: Women in Post-Demobilization Colombia and Guatemala.” Peacebuilding 7.1 (2019): 103-117. https://doi.org/10.1080/21647259.2018.1469340 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21647259.2018.1469340
  75. Tate, Winifred. “Paramilitary Politics and Corruption Talk in Colombia.” Culture, Theory and Critique 59:4 (2018): 419-441. https://doi.org/10.1080/14735784.2018.1522596 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14735784.2018.1522596
  76. Theidon, Kimberly. “Reconstructing Masculinities: The Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Colombia.” Human Rights Quarterly 31.1 (2009): 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1353/hrq.0.0053 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/hrq.0.0053
  77. Ugarriza, Juan E., and Rafael Quishpe. “Guerrilla sin armas: La reintegración política de FARC como transformación de los comunistas revolucionarios en Colombia.” In Excombatientes y acuerdo de paz con las FARC-EP en Colombia: Balance de la etapa temprana, edited by Erin McFee and Angelika Rettberg, 135-158. Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones Uniandes, 2019. https://doi.org/10.30778/2019.45 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30778/2019.45
  78. “Uncertainty for Colombia’s Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP).” ABColombia. March 21, 2019. https://www.abcolombia.org.uk/uncertainty-for-colombias-special-jurisdiction-for-peace-jep/
  79. United Nations Security Council. “Security Council Press Statement on Colombia.” Press release, no. SC/13988. October 15, 2019. https://colombia.unmissions.org/en/security-council-press-statement-colombia-sc13988
  80. United Nations Verification Mission in Colombia. “Press Release on Formal Delivering to Colombian Government of Material Resulting from Laydown of Arms Process, That Were Stored in the UN Mission General Armament Warehouse.” Press release. October 3, 2017. https://colombia.unmissions.org/en/press-release-formal-delivering-colombian-government-material-resulting-laydown-arms-process-were
  81. Utas, Mats. “Victimcy, Girlfriending, Soldiering: Tactic Agency in a Young Woman’s Social Navigation of the Liberian War Zone.” Anthropological Quarterly 78.2 (2005): 403-430. https://doi.org/10.1353/anq.2005.0032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/anq.2005.0032
  82. “Victoria Sandino Simanca Herrera.” Congreso Visible. https://congresovisible.uniandes.edu.co/congresistas/perfil/victoria-sandino-simanca-herrera/13418/
  83. Viterna, Jocelyn. “Demobilization, Remobilization, and Retrenchment.” In Women in War: The Micro-Processes of Mobilization in El Salvador. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199843633.001.0001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199843633.001.0001
  84. Who Are the FARC?” BBC News. November 24, 2016. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-36605769
  85. “Why Colombians Distrust the FARC Peace Deal.” Economist. May 24, 2018. https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2018/05/24/why-colombians-distrust-the-farc-peace-deal
  86. Wilkins, Sam. “Ndira’s Wake: Politics, Memory and Mobility among the Youth of Mabvuku-Tafara, Harare,” Journal of Southern African Studies 39.4 (2013): 885-901. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2013.858545 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2013.858545
  87. Yuddy (@ykaritovar). “#ColombiaProvida ·Digamos NO al aborto · Rechacemos presencia de Victoria Sandino en el Congreso · Victoria Sandino proxeneta de las farc NO puede ser senadora · La sanguinaria Victoria Sandino obligaba a niñas de @CorpoRosaBlanca abortar bajo amenaza de fusilamiento · Asco.” Twitter, October 25, 2019, 8:05 a.m. https://twitter.com/ykaritovar/status/1187747127121924100?s=21